Starknet is a Layer 2 (L2) network based on the Validity-Rollup (or ZK-Rollup) model, functioning atop Ethereum to allow dApps to scale extensively without sacrificing security. It bundles transactions into a STARK proof computed off-chain, then submits this proof to Ethereum as a single transaction. This method enhances throughput, speeds up processing, and reduces costs while maintaining Ethereum's strong security. Blockchains typically aim for three key features: security, decentralization, and scalability. However, a well-known dilemma in blockchain technology is the difficulty in achieving all three simultaneously, often leading to a compromise on one aspect. Ethereum focuses more on security and decentralization, which affects its scalability. As the Ethereum user base grows, it faces slower transactions and higher gas prices, limiting its broader adoption.
The Starknet Validity Rollup offers a solution for Ethereum's scalability challenges without compromising its security and decentralization. Starknet amplifies scalability by processing transactions off the Ethereum Mainnet (off-chain) while keeping a transaction summary on-chain. Transactions are batched into blocks, processed off-chain, and then condensed into a single on-chain transaction. Ensuring the integrity of these off-chain transactions is crucial, which Starknet achieves through STARK (Scalable, Transparent ARgument of Knowledge) proofs for verifiable computation. Starknet then sends only the necessary block information and proof to Ethereum for efficient verification.